Monitoring Sites - Wombat

Introduction | Contacts | Purpose | Site Description | Measurements | DEM | Pictures


The Wombat Flux research site consists of a main flux tower site and three satellite sites.

The main flux tower site includes the following instrumentation that is located in a secured and locked compound:

  • 35 m tall eddy-covariance flux tower;

  • trailer-mounted mobile laboratory – Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometer, including automated sampling chambers;

  • remote area power system (diesel generator and 12V battery bank)

The EC flux tower at the main flux tower site continuously measures the exchange of CO2, water vapour and energy between the atmosphere and the forest through equipment mounted on the tower. This main tower site also includes a full weather station.

The FTIR in the trailer-mounted mobile laboratory continuously measures the flux of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) between the soil and atmosphere that are collected during the closure of automated chambers.

The three satellite sites are located within a 1km radius from the tower and include control plots (no treatment) and rainfall reduction plots (40% rainfall reduction) to study the effect of drought on ecosystem processes. Moreover soil respiration processes are investigated by partitioning soil respiration in its component fluxes heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration. Greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4) are measured using manual chamber techniques coupled with a greenhouse gas analyser (FGGA).

Instrumentation of the Eddy Covariance tower

Instrument Type Make Model Situation
IRGA Open path
- density CO2, H2O
- atmospheric pressure
LI-COR LI-7500 30m
3D sonic anemometer
- wind velocities (u,v,w)
- sonic temperature
Campbell CSAT-3 30m
Air temperature, Humidity
- T, Rh
Vaisalla HMP-45C 2, 5, 10, 20, 30m
PAR Radiation
- PPFD - PPFD diffuse
AT Sunshine - BF3 30m
Pyrgeometer Radiation - Longwave radiation in and out (Lin Lout) Kipp and Zonen CG2 30m
Pyranometer Shortwave radiation (Kin, Kout, albedo) Kipp and Zonen CM 7B 30m
Net Radiation
- Rn
Kipp and Zonen NRLite 30m
- Rain
Hydrological services CS702 30m
Wind direction, speed
- W dir , W vel
RM Young Wind sentry 30m
Soil temperature Thermocouple   -0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.5m 5m from tower
Soil temperature
(averaging array)
Campbell TCAV Surface to 10cm avg 5m from tower
Soil heat flux plates Campbell HFT3 -0.1m 5m from tower
Soil water content
(time domain reflectometer type probe)
Campbell CS616 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.5m 5m from tower
Automatic weather station
- temperature
- Relative Humidity
    1.5m, situated 1.5 and
Data Loggers Campbell CR-3000
Communications Campbell NL115 ethernet and CF card adaptor and Maxon Ethernet modem    
Power Supply
- 12V DC EC flux station
- solar panels (4) (BP)
120W ea 60-80m

Instrumentation of the FTIR

Instrument Type Make Model Situation
FTIR spectrometer Bruker Optik; IR cube with thermo-electrically cooled MCT detector Matrix-M Field laboratory
Thermostatically controlled housing University of Wollongong   Field laboratory
White cell fixed path (26 m) sample cell (4 L) IR analysis, Anaheim, CA 24PA Field laboratory
4 stage diaphragm vacuum pump Vaccu Brand, Germany MV2 Field laboratory
Gas manifold (controls valve swith, flow, pressure, drying) University of Wollongong   Field laboratory
Carrier gas Linde Ultra-high purity Field laboratory
Standard calibration gas CSIRO CO2, CO, H2O, N2O, CH4, 13CO2, 2H Field laboratory
Tower profile manifold (controls valve switch, purge) University of Wollongong   Field laboratory
2 stage diaphragm pump Thomas   Field laboratory
Control lap-top (Oscar, Opus, DCON-Utility software) Dell   Field laboratory
Chamber manifold (controls valve switch, TDR, soil temp.) University of Wollongong   Field laboratory
Automated pneumatic chambers Chinese Academy of Science Festo pneumatic pistons Tower base (0m)
Soil moisture probes Delta T, UK Theta ML2X Tower base (0m)
Soil temperature probes Univ. Wollongong   Tower base (0m)
4.5 kW Diesel generator (Yanmar) and 12V battery bank Watts 2C, QLD Powermaker Ranger 4.5 Tower base (0m)
1.5 hP Air compressor Pilot K8 Tower base (0m)
Modified: 7/10/21